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The MAP sensor responds to changes in the intake manifold pressure (vacuum) and provides a reading of "engine load".
There is the rare occurrence where you can find a MAP sensor in the intake tract, before the throttle body. The MAP sensor does indeed read out "manifold absolute pressure." The computer then decides whether to increase or decrease fuel supply to the engine and adjust spark advancement accordingly. Sometimes, engine heat “overcooks” the MAP sensor's electronics or cracks vacuum lines. MAP sensors are set to "zero" from the factory.
In a MAP sensor-only setup, however, it needs to be located after the throttle body (and usually inside the intake manifold) to be able to measure both vacuum and positive air pressures. Inside the MAP sensor there is a resistor that moves in relation to intake manifold pressure. In fuel-injected automotive engines, a manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor is used to continuously monitor the amount of air flowing into the engine, so the computer can calculate air density, adjust the amount of fuel to spray into the combustion chamber and adjust the ignition timing. How it works is 5 volts DC is supplied to the sensor from the PCM (powertrain control module). MAP sensors fail by getting clogged, contaminated, or damaged. At a perfect vacuum, the MAP sensor will read 0 psi. What is absolute pressure? The signal from the sensor is shown and can be downloaded. When the engine is off, the absolute pressure inside the intake equals atmospheric pressure, so the MAP will indicate about 14.7 psi. MAP Sensors: The MAP sensor is an important part of the modern engine control system. The MAP sensor measures the absolute pressure inside the intake manifold of the engine. A MAP sensor continually compares atmospheric absolute pressure to the intake manifold vacuum and sends the appropriate voltage signal to the vehicle’s computer. MAP is an acronym for M anifold A bsolute P ressure. MAP is an acronym for manifold absolute pressure. I'll try to answer your questions/observations in order: The reason your MAP readout dropped when you increased throttle in neutral is that the engine speed increased. MAP sensors measure the air pressure in your intake manifold, which helps the engine's computer determine air / fuel ratios. In some vehicles, a mass air flow (MAF) sensor is used. The MAP sensor, also known as the Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor, is a necessary component of your vehicle’s fuel injection system. With a lab scope a Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor is measured under the following conditions: key on, cranking, idle, 2000 RPM, 3000 RPM and back to idle with an engine at operating temperature.

In cases like this, there is a MAF sensor as well.

With the car off and the key on, the MAP sensor will read "zero" at sea level. As you may know, the intake manifold is responsible for distributing the air and fuel mixture from the internal combustion chamber into each cylinder. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is about 14.7 psi (pounds per square inch). OpenSenseMap is a platform for publishing and visualizing environmental sensor data. If the MAP sensor goes bad, the ECM can’t accurately calculate engine load, which means the air-fuel ratio will become either too rich (more fuel) or too lean (less fuel). A MAP sensor is an electronic control that works in conjunction with the intake manifold, a system of tubes and chambers that carry a mixture of air and fuel to the intake valves. If the MAP were to go bad, you will likely know it. When asked, “What does MAP mean?” most technicians could correctly answer, “Manifold Absolute Pressure.” The next question, though, would stump most.